One thing that is found in virtually every industrial environment is an air compressor. Some uses for the compressed air generated are: powering pneumatic tools, packaging, automation equipment, conveyors, controls systems, and various others. Pneumatic tools are favored because they tend to be smaller and more lightweight than electric tools, offer infinitely variable speed and torque, and can be safer than the hazards associated with electrical devices. In order to power these devices, compressed air must be generated.
There are two main categories of air compressors: positive-displacement and dynamic. In a positive-displacement type, a given quantity of air is trapped in a compression chamber. The volume of which it occupies is mechanically reduced (squished), causing a corresponding rise in pressure. Of the positive-displacement variety they are broken down further into two more categories: reciprocating and rotary.
A reciprocating compressor works like a bicycle pump. A piston reduces the volume occupied by the air or gas, compressing it into a higher pressure. There are two types of reciprocating compressors, single or double-acting. Single-acting compressors are the most common and are available up to 30HP at 200 psig.
Their small size and weight allow them to be installed near the point of use and avoid lengthy piping runs. Additionally, the single-acting reciprocating compressors do not need a separate cooling system. All of this leads to much simpler maintenance procedures, making the single-acting reciprocating compressors one of the easiest to maintain.
There are some disadvantages to this style of compressor. Rings have a tendency to wear out over time, if they’re not replaced as needed this can lead to lubricant carry-over into the air supply. These styles of compressor are relatively loud and comparatively cost more to operate than many other types. Because of this, they’re not designed for applications and processes that have a heavy-duty cycle of 70-90%. The single-acting reciprocating compressor should be used in installations where it’s only going to run 50% or less of the time.
At EXAIR we’re committed to providing you with the point of use products that’ll use your compressed air as efficiently and safely as possible. Feel free to reach out to an Application Engineer to discuss how we can help you improve in your processes.
Image courtesy of Compressor1 via Creative Commons License