Recently, EXAIR Application Engineers have written blogs about reciprocating type air compressors: Single Acting (by Lee Evans) and Dual Acting (by John Ball.) Today, I would like to introduce you, dear EXAIR blog reader, to another type: the Rotary Screw Air Compressor.
Like a reciprocating compressor, a rotary screw design uses a motor to turn a drive shaft. Where the reciprocating models use cams to move pistons back & forth to draw in air, compress it, and push it out under pressure, a rotary screw compressor’s drive shaft turns a screw (that looks an awful lot like a great big drill bit) whose threads are intermeshed with another counter-rotating screw. It draws air in at one end of the screw, and as it is forced through the decreasing spaces formed by the meshing threads, it’s compressed until it exits into the compressed air system.
So…what are the pros & cons of rotary screw compressors?
*Efficiency. With no “down-stroke,” all the energy of the shaft rotation is used to compress air.
*Quiet operation. Obviously, a simple shaft rotating makes a lot less noise than pistons going up & down inside cylinders.
*Higher volume, lower energy cost. Again, with no “down-stroke,” the moving parts are always compressing air instead of spending half their time returning to the position where they’re ready to compress more air
*Suitable for continuous operation. The process of compression is one smooth, continuous motion.
*Availability of most efficient control of output via a variable frequency drive motor.
*They operate on the exact same principle as a supercharger on a high performance sports car (not a “pro” strictly speaking from an operation sense, but pretty cool nonetheless.)
*Purchase cost. They tend to run a little more expensive than a similarly rated reciprocating compressor. Or more than a little, depending on options that can lower operating costs. Actually, this is only a “con” if you ignore the fact that, if you shop right, you do indeed get what you pay for.
*Not ideal for intermittent loads. Stopping & starting a rotary screw compressor might be about the worst thing you can do to it. Except for slacking on maintenance. And speaking of which:
*Degree of maintenance. Most maintenance on a reciprocating compressor is fairly straightforward (think “put the new part in the same way the old one came out.”) Working on a rotary screw compressor often involves reassembly & alignment of internal parts to precision tolerances…something better suited to the professionals, and they don’t work cheap.
Like anything else, there are important factors to take under consideration when deciding which type of air compressor is most suitable for your needs. At EXAIR, we always recommend consulting a reputable air compressor dealer in your area, helping them fully understand your needs, and selecting the one that fits your operation and budget.